Carl Jung has bequeathed a unique heritage to modern psychology and the world. His view of the psyche reaches far below those of his contemporaries like Freud and Adler and plunges into the abyss of the collective subconscious.
He coined the term synchronicity for the acausal connecting principle that appears to link seemingly unrelated events in a web of coincidence. This again is a principle that may reach far below psychology into the very nature of quantum non-locality, and far from being a mere fantasy of the psyche, may express fundamental connections at the very ground of cosmology.
Likewise, through his investigation of the collective, sometimes also referred to as the collective unconscious, although subconscious might be a more appropriate term for this mysterious and fluid interface between dream memory and reflection and the apparently ancient images at the founding of our cultural mythologies, he coined the term archetype for the fundamental upwelling universal images which seem to recur as a futuristic echo in the modern mind of the very founding roots of culture.
"Regrettably, the surviving members of the Jung family and the administrators of the Jung estate have shown little interest in contributing to the historical record. We do have, however, the posthumously published "autobiography" known as Memories, Dreams, Reflections, which purports to be an honest statement from Jung himself about his own life. This is only partly true. As the scholar Alan Elms was the first to document, this book is less an autobiography than a patchwork of material brilliantly integrated by Aniela Jaffe, Jung's assistant in his last years, with copious editorial assistance from the American editors at Pantheon, who brought out the English edition before a German one appeared. Although Jung wrote the initial draft of the first three chapters and a later one entitled "Late Thoughts," in which he speculated on life after death, these were not intended to be the first chapters of an autobiography, despite what the published volume would lead one to think. Furthermore, against Jung's own wishes, his words in these chapters were altered or deleted to conform to the image preferred by his family and disciples ... The Jung portrayed in MDR is a clairvoyant sage, a miracle worker, a god-man who earns his apotheosis through his encounter with the Dead and with God. His is a morality tale of mystical evolution, as his life becomes the exemplum of his theories, the heroic saga of an "individuated" man who survived a terrifying encounter with extramundane beings (the archetypes) from a transcendent reality (the collective unconscious)." (Noll - Preface).
"Pietists' mystical enthusiam is reflected in some of their favourite incendiary metaphors for their ecstatic experiences. It was the fire of the Holy Spirit that must burn within , indeed it was often said that "the heart must burn" . They emphasized the burning experience of 'Christ within us' instead of the inanimate, automatic belief in a dogma of a 'Christ for us'. Such subtle distinctions had profound implications for German nationalism, for the belief arose in a feeling of a group identity bound by common inner experience, a mystical blood-union of necessity, rather than as something external existing for an individual" (Noll 9)
"Emest Jones complained to Freud in December 1912 that 'Jung is going to save the world, another Christ (with certainly anti-Semitism combined)'. Freud concurred. 'I thank you for your very just remarks about Jung. In fact, he behaves like a perfect fool, he seems to be Christ himself, and in the particular things he says and does there is always something of the [rascall]' " (Noll 112).
"By the end of 1913, however, Jung did not share Freud's enlightened opinion that there should not be a specifically Aryan or Jewish science. Psychoanalysis had to raise the consciousness of humanity to a higher level through a religious outlook. The only problem was that such a conception of psychoanalysis could no longer have a place for Jews" (Noll 112)..
Jung's investigations of the psyche thus ran much broader and deeper than those of his colleagues and took him into far flung fields from Taoistic texts such as the Secret of the Golden Flower to ruminations on Christian archetypes and the prophetic nature of the Book of Revelation. Thay led into areas we would now call parapsychology and mysticism as well as laying a less sexually-stylized basis for the ordinary psyche than Freud.
Jung's Vision of the Apocalypse of Renewal
and the evolution of Religious Revelation
"Jung on his death bed had a vision. He left a drawing with a line going up and down. he last fifty years of humanity. A time of catastrophe. Since I have those notes in the drawer I don't allow myself to be too optimistic. When I think of all the beauty of life and the billions and billions of years that it took to appear and that man would go out of sheer shallow foolishness and destroy it all and that life might go from the planet And we don't know if there is any other life experiment in the galaxies. And we go and destroy it. I think its so abominable. I pray that it may not happen - that a miracle happens. Young people seem today to be giving up and running away into a fantasy world. Give up and leave this earth. I think one shouldn't give up. I think of the answer to Job, because if man would wrestle with God - If man would tell God that he shouldn't do it - If we would reflect more. That's why reflection comes in. Jung never felt that we might do better than just possibly sneak around the corner, with not too big a catastrophe. When I saw him last he had also a vision. "I see enormous stretches of the earth but thank God its not the whole planet" (Dr. Marie-Louise von Franz, Matter of Heart - TV)
Jung had had a similar vision of destruction, including seas of blood, shortly before the first world war broke out in 1914, confirming a vision which he had begun to think might be sourced in his own neurosis.
Although incorporating the archetypes of Christ and God into his vision of the self, Jung refused to commit himself about the existence of God. In the changing archetypes of the self however he visualized the creative process of spiritual revelation as an evolutionary one with further stages to come: "His religion was an attitude to life and had absolutely nothing to do with any kind of creed. It was a matter of personal experience. Why don't the priests go down into the collective unconscious to know what the soul of man is about? Nobody would look at the soul in the modern mind. And they always thought it was an accomplished act, but it wasn't. That's why the Book of Revelation had so much meaning for Jung and that's why he saw it as having its place in the Bible. You know Calvin faught desperately to remove this 'dark and dangerous book' which suggests that the Revelation of God didn't end with Jesus Christ, that religion is a process of continuing revelation and being obedient to your greater awareness of becoming in life." (Laurence van der Post - Matter of Heart TV)
Jung's concept of alchemy likewise reflects three key concepts of the Renewal, the restoration of the physical, the return of the feminine principle and the end of the conflict between light and dark: In the worlds of an analyst follower: "Civilization needs a myth to live, not just welfare. It needs a living myth. The Christian myth has become one-sided. It has degenerated. It doesn't give enough to the feminine or in Catholicism the feminine is purified. It is not the dark feminine. It is not facing the problem of opposites, not facing the physical and not facing the feminine. The three problems which alchemy addresses" (Dr. Marie-Louise von Franz, Matter of Heart - TV).
Synchronicity has been called by many names. In the tradition of Indian religious philosophy it is referred to as karma . It is likewise regarded as a fundamenatl aspect of the Tao in which nature, chance and conscious represent three features of one manifestation of the cosmic creative force. It is likewise in the 'implicate order' (Bohm) of quantum non-locality as expressed for example in the transactional interpretation and in such ideas as morphic resonance (Sheldrake).
The uncanny synchronicity which heraled Jung's split from Freud underscores the way in which seemingly accidental phenomena of nature can become 'affirmations from the world around us':
"It is interesting to note that Jung had experience of certain 'phenomena' even in the presence of the arch-sceptic Freud, and that they presaged the break in his relation with Freud. He describes how, in 1909, he and Freud argued about psychical phenomena, and Freud's shallow positivism annoyed Jung. He writes: "While Freud was going on this way, I had a curious sensation. It was as if my diaphragm were made of iron and were becoming red-hot, a glowing vault. And at that moment there was such a loud report in the bookcase, which stood right next to us, that we both started up in alarm, fearing that the thing was going to topple over on us. I said to Freud: 'There, that is an example of a so-called catalytic exteriorisation phenomenon.' 'Oh come,) he exclaimed, 'that is sheer bosh.' 'It is not , I replied. 'You are mistaken, Herr Professor. And to prove my point, I now predict that in a moment there will be another loud report!' Sure enough, no sooner had I said the words than the same detonation went off in the bookcase. To this day I do not know what gave me this certainty. But I knew beyond all doubt that the report would come again . . ." (Wilson C 478).
"Consider synchronistic phenomena, premonitions, and dreams that come true. I recall one time during the Second World War when I was returning home from Bollingen. I had a book with me, but could not read, for the moment the train started to move I was overpowered by the image of someone drowning. This was a memory of an accident that had happened while I was on military service. During the entire journey I could not rid myself of it. It struck me as uncanny, and I thought, What has happened? Can there have been an accident?" I got out at- Erlenbach and walked home, still troubled by this memory. My second daughter's children were in the garden. The family was living with us, having returned to Switzerland from Paris because of the war. The children stood looking rather upset, and when I asked, " Why, what is the matter?" they told me that Adrian, then the youngest of the boys, had fallen into the water in the boathouse. It is quite deep there, and since he could not really swim he had almost drowned. His older brother had fished him out. This had taken place at exactly the time I had been assailed by that memory in the train. The unconscious had given me a hint." (Jung C 1963 333)
"Why should it not be able to inform me of other things also? I had a somewhat similar experience before a death in my wife's family. I dreamed that my wife's bed was a deep pit with stone walls. It was a grave, and somehow had a suggestion of classical antiquity about it. then I heard a deep sigh, as if someone were giving up the ghost. A figure that resembled my wife sat up in the pit and floated upwards. It wore a white gown into which curious black symbols were woven. I awoke, roused my wife, and checked the time. It was three o'clock in the moming. the dream was so curious that I thought at once that it might signify a death. At seven o'clock came the news that a cousin of my wife had died at three o'clock in the morning" (Jung C 1963 334).
"Frequently foreknowledge is there, but not recognition. Thus I once had a dream in which I was attending a garden party. I saw my sister there, and that greatly surprised me, for she had died some years before. A deceased friend of mine was also present. The rest were people who were still alive. Presently I saw that my sister was accompanied by a lady I knew well. Even in the dream I had drawn the conclusion that the lady was going to die. " She is already marked," I thought. In the dream I knew exactly who she was. I knew also that she lived in Basel. But as soon as I woke up I could no longer, with the best will in the world, recall who she was, although the whole dream was still vivid in my mind. I pictured all my acquaintances in Basel to see whether the memory images would ring a bell. Nothing! A few weeks later I received news that a friend of mine had had a fatal accident. I knew at once that she was the person - I had seen in the dream but had been unable to identify. My recollection of her was perfectly dear and richly detailed, since - she had been my patient for a considerable time up to a year before her death. In my attempt to recall the person in my dream, however, hers was the one name which did not appear in my portrait gallery of Basel acquaintances, although by rights it should have been one the first. When one has such experiences and I will tell of others then one acquires a certain respect for the potentialities - and arts of the unconscious. Only, one must remain critical and be aware that such communications may have objective meaning as well. They may be in accord with reality, and then again they may not. I have, however, learned that the views I have been able to form on the basis of such hints from the unconscious have been most rewarding" (Jung C 1963 334-5).
"Naturally, I am not going to write a book of revelations about them, but I will acknowledge that I have a "myth" which encourages me to look deeper into this whole realm. Myths are the earliest form of science. When I speak of things after death, I am speaking out of inner prompting and can go no farther than to tell you dreams and myths that relate to this subject. Naturally, one can contend from the start that myths and dreams concerning continuity of life after death are merely compensating fantasies which are inherent in our natures - all life desires eternity. The only argument I can adduce in answer to this is the myth itself. However, there are indications that at least a part of the psyche is not subject to the laws of space and time. Scientific proof of that has been provided by the well-known B. Rhine experiments. Along with numerous cases of spontaneous foreknowledge, non-spatial perceptions, and ones which I have given a number of examples from own life - these experiments prove that the psyche at times functions outside of the spatiotemporal law of causality. This indicates that our conceptions of space and time, and therefore of causality also, are incomplete. A complete picture of the world would require the addition of another dimension; only then could the totality of phenomena be given a unified explanation. Hence it is that rationalists insist to this day that parapsychological experiences do not really exist" (Jung C 1963 335)
Jung likewise had another almost cosmological concept, the archetype, a recurring image which would well up in consciousness from the collective expressing existential themes which are universal and underly the common myths and experiences underlying the existential nature of culture itself. Although he often described these as static and ancient features of mystical and religious vision, his access to them was through the ever changing and recurrently futuristic avenue of the vision welling up from dreams, trance states and mental reflection. Thus while the archetype does have an ancient basis, it neverthess emerges to us in the present in the evolving expression of existential history as it becomes our unfolding future. This is clearly expressed in many of his apocalyptic expressions of the archetype in the final human condition:
"The image of God is an age-old pattern. ... Man's relation to God probably has to undergo a certain amount of change. Instead of the propitiating praise to an unpredictable being or the child's prayer to a loving father, the responsible living and fulfilling of the divine will in us will be our form of worship and commerce with God. His goodness means grace and light. His dark side the terrible temptation of power. Man has already received so much knowledge that he can destroy his own planet. Let us hope God's good creation will guide him in his decision, for it will depend on man's decision whether God's creation will continue. Nothing shows more drastically than this possibility how much of divine power has come within the reach of man." Carl Jung 1956 (Matter of Heart - TV).
Nevertheless, despite including God among his archetypes and expressing God in the self as a central visionary aspect of his own experience, Jung very prudently refused to commit himself concering the metaphysical existence of God: "The self was important to Jung and in the self he saw the god image being alive at the center. He did not wish to discuss the existence of God because this was a metaphysical question which he was not perpared to go into, but in the psyche was the God image within one's self. The God image changes. God does not change" (Matter of Heart - TV).
To Jung, the archetypes emerged from a lower unconscious realm universally subtending the psyche: "I have, therefore, even hazarded the postulate that the phenomenon of archetypal configurations - which are psychic events par excellence - may be founded upon a psychoid base, that is, upon an only partially psychic and possibly altogether different form of being. For lack of empirical data I have neither knowledge nor understanding', of such forms of being, which are commonly called spiritual. From the point of view of science, it is immaterial what I may believe on that score, and I must accept my ignorance. But in so far as the archetypes act upon me, they are real and actual to me, even though I do not know what their real nature is" (Jung 1963 384).
"This applies, of course, not only to the archetypes but to the nature of the psyche in general. Whatever it may state about itself, it will never get beyond itself, All comprehension and all that is comprehended is in itself psychic, and to that extent we are hopelessly cooped up in an exclusively psychic world. Nevertheless, we have good reason to suppose that behind this veil there exists the uncomprehended absolute object which affects and influences us - and to suppose it even, or particularly, in the case of psychic phenomena about which no verifiable statements can be made. Statements concerning possibility or impossibility are valid only in specialised fields; outside those fields they are merely arrogant presumptions" (Jung 1963 385).
"Prohibited though it may be from an objective point of view to make statements out of the blue - that is, without sufficient reason-there are nevertheless some statements which apparently have to be made without objective reasons. The justification here is a psychodynamic one, of the sort usually termed subjective and regarded as a purely personal matter. But that is to commit the mistake of failing to distinguish whether the statement really proceeds only from an isolated subject, and is prompted by exclusively personal motives, or whether it occurs generally and springs from a collectively present dynamic pattern. In that case it should not be classed subjective, but as psychglogically objective, since an indefinite number of individuals find themselves prompted by an inner impulse to make an identical statement, or feel a certain view to be a vital necessity" (Jung 1963 385).
"Since the archetype is not just an inactive form, but a real force charged with a specific energy, it may very well be regarded as the causa efficiens of such statements, and be understood as the subject of them. In other words, it is not the personal human being who is making the statement, but the archetype speaking through him. If these statements are stifled or disregarded, both medical experience and common knowledge demonstrate that psychic troubles are in store. These will appear either as neurotic symptoms or, in the case of persons who are incapable of neurosis, as collective delusions" (Jung 1963 385).
"Archetypal statements are based upon instinctive preconditions and have nothing to do with reason; they are neither rationally grounded nor can they be banished by rational arguments. They have always been part of the world scene reprisentations collectives, as Levy-Bruhl rightly called them. Certainly the ego and its will have a great part to play in life; but what the ego wills is subject in the highest degree to the interference, in ways of which the ego is usually unaware, of the autonomy and numinosity of archetypal processes. Practical consideration of these processes is the essence of religion, in so far as religion can be approached from a psychorogical point of view" (Jung 1963 386).
In Search of a Living Religion
Naomi Goldenberg in Changing of the Gods correctly addresses the changes necessary to transform from the patriarchal religion of conserved transcendent archetypes of the male god to the diversity archetypes that must accompany the spiritual transfromation to the "feminist cultural revolution" and the "age of pluralism".
She elaborates on Jungs critiques of Catholicism and Protestantism as religions lacking the creative process which imbues the visionary source experience that founded the living traditions of existing religions.
"True religion has to be alive. This life consists in how well the religion nurtures a mythic understanding in its followers. Catholicism, for example, almost qualifies as living religion because it presents the rich imagery of the story of Jesus and the lives of the saints. All of the ceremony, ritual, mystery and color of Catholic tradition provides many Catholics with a vital mythic context in which to live. However, even though Catholicism has myth and mystery, it is a dying religion. Catholicism, Jung observed, can not allow individual people to depart from the myths dispensed by the Catholic hierarchy" (Goldenberg 1979 49).
"Some features of Protestantism make it better qualified to endure in an age with an increasing demand for living religion. Protestantism has purged itself of most myth, ritual and imagery. Jung saw it becoming increasingly undogmatic with fewer and fewer mythic models to force on its followers. Protestantism seems to be developing a greater tolerance for variety both in individuals and in sects. In this sense, it permits a person to explore her or his experience more freely than does Catholicism. However, even though Protestantism is generally good-natured about permitting people to go their own way, it offers no insights into the nature of myth" (Goldenberg 1979 50).
"What then is a living religion? ... Christ, Buddha, Mohammed and all other founders of traditions have experienced living religion. They have lived their lives in uncompromising loyalty to their visions, that is, to their myths. Disciples are so impressed by the stature of these leaders by the force and power devotion to their visions conferred upon them that they found mythic systems based on the content of the leader's experience. The myths of the leaders, however, never have the same impact on the disciples. Jung believed it was the process of discovery of the myth that gave the leaders their power. ... Appropriation of the content of the founder's vision could not make the vision work in the way it did for the founder; power was lost" (Goldenberg 1979 52).
Goldenberg goes on to argue that it is possible to break free of such established religions of order and allow freedom of mythical and visionary expression and thus give expression to a feminine revival of living mythical diversity. "There is a problem with the concept of living religion. If everyone becomes committed to developing her or his own set of myths and symbols, how is community possible? ... I am going to argue that it is not necessary for human beings to share the same myths, images and symbols. Instead, it is more important that human beings share the process of symbol creation itself. ... One of the great ideals of the feminist cultural revolution is that all human beings be encouraged to find their own dignity and pursue their own truth. The creation of a new set of stereotypes would be sad indeed. ... I hope to show how sharing the processes of symbol creation can build a sense of community" (Goldenberg 1979 52).
Eros as the Ultimate Divine Nature: God as Love
"At this point the fact forces itself on my attention that beside the field of reflection there is another equally broad if not broader area in which rational understanding and rational modes of representation find scarcely anything they are able to grasp. This is the realm of Eros - In classical times, when such things were properly understood, Eros was considered a god whose divinity transcended our human limits, and who therefore could neither be comprehended nor represented in any way. I might, as many before me have attempted to do, venture an approach to this daemon, whose range of activity extends from the endless spaces of the heavens to the dark abysses of hell; but I falter before the task of finding the language which might adequately express the incalculable paradoxes of love. Eros is a kosmogonos, a creator and father-mother of an higher consciousness. I sometimes feel that Paul's words-" Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love"- might well be the first condition of all cognition and the quintessence of divinity itself" (Jung 1963 386).
"Whatever the learned interpretation may be of the sentence "God is love," the words affirm the complexio oppositorum of the Godhead. In my medical experience as well as in my own life I have again and again been faced with the mystery of love, and have never been able to explain what it is. Like Job, I had to "lay my hand on my mouth. I have spoken once, and I will not answer." (Job 40:4 ) Here is the greatest and smallest, the remotest and nearest, the highest and lowest, and we cannot discuss one side of it without also discussing the other. No language is adequate to this paradox. Whatever one can say, no words express the whole. To speak of partial aspects is always too much or too little, for only the whole is meaningful. Love " bears all things" and "endures all things" (1 Cor 13:7). These words say all there is to be said; nothing can be added to them. For we are in the deepest sense the victims and the instruments of cosmogonic "love." I put the word in quotation marks to indicate that I do not use it in its connotations of desiring, preferring, favouring, wishing, and similar feelings, but as something superior to the individual, a unified and undivided whole" (Jung 1963 387).
"Being a part, man cannot grasp the whole. He is at its mercy. He may assent to it, or rebel against it; but he is always caught up by it and enclosed within it. He is dependent upon it and is sustained by it. Love is his light and his darkness, whose end he cannot see. "Love ceases not" - whether he speaks with the "tongues of angels," or with scientific exactitude traces the life of the cell down to its uttermost source. Man can try to name love, showering upon it all the names at his command, and still he will involve himself in endless self-deceptions. If he possesses a grain of wisdom, he will lay down his arms and name the unknown by the more unknown, ignotum per ignotius - that is, by the name of God. This is a confession of his subjection, his imperfection, and his dependence; but at the same time a testimony to his freedom to choose between truth and error" (Jung 1963 387).
Anima and Animus and Gender Transcendence
From The Gaia Messiah and the Anima/Animus Theory - Doctress Neutopia
"Feminist scholars, in disagreement with Jung's archetypal theory, charge him with putting women in an inferior social position to men. Jung's theory states that every man has a female side to his unconscious psyche which he calls anima, while women have a male counterpart within their unconscious psyches which he calls animus."
"According to Jung, there are four different developmental stages of the female animus. The lower stage is that of the personification of physical power, for example, seeing the athlete as hero. At the next stage of animus, he possesses the ability for planned action and social reform. The third phase is the Logos stage where he becomes the clergyman or professor who controls the word. Finally, the last stage of development he becomes a religious experience incarnating a new meaning of life."
"Jung's male anima also has four stages of development. The first being the biological, represented by Eve. The second is the romantic and aesthetic level still characterized by sexual involvements exemplified by Faust's Helen. The third stage, Eros, is raised to a spiritual devotion as worshipped in the Virgin Mary. The fourth is represented by Sapientia, a wise woman transcending the most pure and holy women."
"He believed the two different components of the psyche were equally important, complementary, although contrasting. ... However, Naomi Goldenberg points out Jung's writings reveal his prejudice against the female Logos. He writes, 'The animus corresponds to the paternal Logos just as the anima corresponds to the natural Eros. In men, Eros, the function of relationship, is usually less developed than Logos. In women, on the other hand, Eros is an expression of true nature, while their Logos is often only a regrettable accident'." (Goldenberg 1981, 67).
Golden berg elaborates on this theme of Hubbard in several of her works endeavouring to overcome the encumberances of the animus/anima as a fixed unchanging archetype: " Jung defines the anima and the animus as archetypes. On a practical level, this means that a woman's basic nature is dictated by Eros and that her capacity for logical thought should never be pushed too far. This is the origin of the continual Jungian warning about "women's libbers" overstepping the bounds of appropriately feminine use of the intellect. I am often termed animus-ridden when I speak to Jungian audiences about the logical flaws in the anima/animus theory. No matter how demurely I dress for a lecture, I am sure to be warned about departing too far from femininity as soon as I raise doubts about the universality of inferior Logos in women. To Jungians, the anima and animus are unchangeable archetypes for the sexes. Because they are called archetypes, they are supposed to remain fundamentally unchanged per aeternitatem" (Goldenberg 1979, 57).
Jung himself however described archetypes as evolving so there is really no need to define them in this eternally unchanging way. It is beneficial that each gender has the germ of the other, but these should not be used as archetypes to confine the potential of either gender. Goldenberg chooses to redefine "archetypal" as an adjective to describe the degree to which an image affects us (64). While this ia a good test of the validity of archetypes, there is no need to reduce "archetype" to "stereotype" and indeed this runs a certain risk of losing the power of archetype as a root expression of the human experiential stream. The power of archetype is that it is not confined to one set of religious or mythical symbols but is an aspect of the existential well-spring. To be so it must evolve with human consciousness. Change indeed transformation is inevitable and wholly necessary in just the manner of diversity of process which Goldenberg evokes in her ecosystemic treatment of the changing of the gods.
Buddha and Christ as Catalysts of Personal Realization
Jung describes how watching Buddhist worshippers at Sanchi revealed to him a fundamental truth about great sages as empowerers of direct experience of the divine in the self as opposed to the shadow of traditional dogma which retreats into a worshipping from a distance and ritualistic following of the example of the prophet:
"'Om Mane Padme Hum'. They bowed again before the statue of the Buddha, intoning a chorale-like song. They completed the double circumambulation, singing a hymn before each statue of the Buddha. As I watched them, my mind and spirit were with them, and something within me silently thanked them for having so wonderfully come to the aid of my inarticulate feelings. The intensity of my emotion showed that the hill of Sanchi meant something central to me" (Jung 1963 309).
"A new side of Buddhism was revealed to me there. I grasped the life of the Buddha as the reality of the self which had broken through and laid claim to a personal life. For Buddha, the self stands above all gods, a unus mundus which represents the essence of human existence and of the world as a whole. The self embodies both the aspect of intrinsic being and the aspect of its being known, without which no world exists. Buddha saw and grasped the cosmogonic dignity of human consciousness; for that reason he saw clearly that if a man succeeded in extinguishing this light, the world would sink into nothingness. Schopenhauer's great achievement lay in his also recognising this, or in rediscovering it independently. - Christ - like Buddha - is an embodiment of the self, but in an altogether different sense. Both stood for an overcoming of the world: Buddha out of rational insight; Christ as a foredoomed sacrifice. In Christianity more is suffered, in Buddhism more is seen and done. Both paths are right, but in the Indian sense Buddha is the more complete human being. He is a historical personality, and therefore easier for men to understand. Christ is at once a historical man and God, and therefore much more difficult to comprehend. At bottom he was not comprehensible even to himself; he knew only that he had to sacrifice himself, that course was imposed upon him from within. His sacrifice happened to him like an act of destiny. Buddha lived his life and died at an advanced age, whereas Christ's activity as Christ probably lasted no more than a year. Later Buddhism underwent the same transformation as Christianity" (Jung 1963 309).
"Buddha became, as it were, the image of the development of the self; he became a model for men to, imitate, whereas actually he had preached that by overcoming the Nidana-chain every human being could become an illuminate, a buddha. Similarly, in Christianity, Christ is an exemplar who dwells in every Christian as his integral personality. But historical trends led to the imitatio Christi, whereby the individual does not pursue his own destined road to wholeness, but attempts to imitate the way taken by Christ. Similarly in the East, historical trends led to a a devout imitation of the Buddha. That Buddha should have become a model to be imitated was in itself a weakening of his idea, just as the imitatio Christi was a forerunner of the fateful stasis in the evolution of the Christian idea. As Buddha, by virtue of his insight, was far in advance of the Brahma gods, so Christ cried out to the Jews, "You are gods " (John10:34); but men were incapable of understanding what he meant. Instead we find that the so-called Christian West, far from creating a new world, is moving with giant strides towards the possibility of destroying the world we have" (Jung 1963 309-10).
The Alchemical Christ
"One night I awoke and saw, bathed in bright light at the foot of my bed, the figure of Christ on the Cross. It was not quite life-size, but extremely distinct and - I saw that his body was made of greenish gold. The vision was marvellously beautiful, and yet I was profoundly shaken by it. A vision as such is nothing unusual for me, for I frequently see extremely vivid. hypnagogic images. I had been thinking a great deal about the Anima Christi, one of the meditations from the Spiritual Exercises. The vision came to me as if to point out that I had overlooked something in my reflections: the analogy of Christ with the aurum non vulgi and the viriditas of the alchemists. When I realised that the vision pointed to this central alchemical symbol, and that I had had an essentially alchemical vision of Christ, I felt comforted. The green gold is the living quality which the alchemists saw not only in man but also in inorganic nature. It is an expression of the life-spirit, the anima mundi or filius macrocosmi, the Anthropos who animates the whole cosmos. This spirit has poured himself out into everything, even into inorganic matter; he is present in metal and stone. My vision was thus a union of the Christ-image with his analogue in matter, the filius macrocosmi. If I had not been so stuck by the greenish gold, I would have been tempted to assume that something essential was missing from my "Christian" view - in other words, that my traditional Christ-image was somehow inadequate and that I still had to catch up with part of the Christian development. The emphasis on the metal, however, showed me the undisguised alchemical conception of Christ as a union of spiritually alive and physically dead matter. I took up the problem of Christ again in Aion" (Jung 1963 237).
"Here I was concerned not with the various historical parallels but with the relation of the Christ figure to psychology. Nor did I see Christ as a figure stripped of all externalities. Rather, I wished to show the development, extending over the centuries, of the religious content which he represented. It was also important to me to show how Christ could have been astrologically predicted, and how he was understood both in terms of the spirit of his age and in the course of two thousand years of Christian civilisation. This was what I wanted to portray, together with all the curious marginal glosses which have accumulated around him in the course of the centuries. As I delved into all these matters the question of the historical person, of Jesus the man, also came up. It is of importance because the collective mentality of his time- one might also say: the archetype which was already constellated, the primordial image of the Anthropos - was condensed in him, an almost unknown Jewish prophet. The ancient idea of the Anthropos, whose roots lie in Jewish tradition on the one hand and in the Egyptian Horus myth on the other, had taken possession of the people at the beginning of the Christian era, for it was part of the Zeitgeist. It was essentially concerned with the Son of Man God's own son, who stood opposed to the deified Augustus - the ruler of this world. This idea fastened upon the originally Jewish problem of the Messiah and made it a world problem. It would be a serious misunderstanding to regard as mere chance " the fact that Jesus, the carpenter's son, proclaimed the gospel and became the saviour of the world. He must have been a person of singular gifts to have been able so completely to express and to represent the general though unconscious, expectations of his age. No one else could have been the bearer of such a message; it was possible only for this particular man Jesus. In those times the omnipresent, crushing power of Rome, embodied in the divine Caesar, had created a world wheit countless individuals, indeed whole peoples, were robbed of their cultural independence and of their spiritual autonomy" (Jung 1963 238-9)
"Today, individuals and cultures are faced with a similar threat, namely of being swallowed up in the mass. Hence in many places there is a wave of hope in a reappearance of Christ, and a visionary rumour has even arisen - which expresses expectations of redemption. The form it has taken, however, is comparable to nothing in the past, but is a typical child of the " age of technology." This is the worldwide distribution of the UFO phenomenon" (Jung 1963 239).
The Christ Archetype and the Contrariness of God
"In actuality my father had never interested himself in theriomorphic Christ - symbolism. On the other hand he had literally lived right up to his death the suffering prefigured and promised by Christ, without ever becoming aware that this was a consequence of the imitatio Christi. He regarded his suffering as a personal affliction for which you might ask a doctor's advice; he did not see it as the suffering of the Christian in general. The words of Galatians 2 :20: " I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me," never penetrated his mind in their full significance, for any thinking about religious matters sent shudders of horror through him. He wanted to rest content with faith, but faith broke faith with him. Such is frequently the reward of the sacrificium intellectus. " Not all men can receive this precept, but only those to whom it is given. . . . There are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdord of heaven. He who is able to receive this, let him receive it." (Matthew 19:11.) Blind acceptance never leads to a solution; at best it leads only to a standstill and is paid for heavily in the next generation.- The. theriomorphic - attributes of the gods show that the gods extend not only into super-human refions but also into the subhuman realm. The animals are their shadows, as it were, which nature herself associatesates with the divine image. The "pisciculi Christianorum " show that those who imitate Christ are thermselves fish - that is, unconscious souls who require the cura animarum. The fish laboratory is a synonym for the ecclesiastical "care of souls." And just as the wounder wounds himself, so the healer heals himself. Significantly, in the dream the decisive activity is carried out by the dead upon the dead, in the world beyond consciousness, that is, in the unconscious. At that stage of my life, therefore, I was still not conscious of an essential aspect of my task, nor would I have been able to give a satisfactory interpretation of the dream - I could only sense its meaning" (Jung 1963 242-3)
"I still had to overcome the greatest inner resistances before I could write Answer to Job. 'The inner root of this book is to be found in Aeon. There I had dealt with the psychology of Christianity, and Job is a - kind of prefiguration of Christ. The link between them is the idea of suffering. Christ is the suffering servant of God, and so was Job. In the case of Christ the sins of the world are the cause of suffering, and the suffering of the Christian is the general answer. This leads inescapably to the question: Who is responsible for these sins? In the final analysis it is God who created the world and its sins, and who therefore became Christ in order to suffer the fate of humanity. In Aeon there are references to the bright and dark side of the divine image. I cited the "wrath of God," the commandment to fear God, and the petition "Lead us not into temptation" The ambivalent God-image plays a crucial part in the Book of Job. Job expects that God will, in a sense stand beside him against God; in this we have a picture oif God's tragic contrariness. This was the main theme of Answer to Job" (Jung 1963 243).
The Paradox of Evil and the Nature of Myth
"Our myth has become mute, and gives no answers. The fault lies not in it as it is set down in the Scriptures, but solely in us, who have not developed it further, who, rather, have suppressed any such attempts. The original version of the myth offers ample points of departure and possibilities of development. For example, the words are put into Christ's mouth : "Be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves." For what purpose do men need the cunning of serpents? And what is the link between this cunning and the innocence of the dove? " Except ye become as little children . . ." Who gives thought to what children are like in reality? By what morality did the Lord justify the taking of the ass which he needed in order to ride in triumph into Jerusalem? How was it that, shortly afterwards, he put on a display of childish bad temper and cursed the fig tree? What kind of morality emerges from the parable of the unjust steward, and what profound insight, of such far-reaching significance for our own predicament, from the apocryphal logion: " Man, if thou knowest what thou dost, thou art blessed; but if thou knowest not, thou are accursed and a transgressor of the law "? What, finally, does it mean when St. Paul confesses : " The evil which I would not, that I do "?"(Jung 1963 364)
"The old question posed by the Gnostics, " Whence comes evil?" has been given no answer by the Christian world, and Origen's cautious suggestion of a possible redemption of the devil was termed a heresy. Today we are compelled to meet that question; but we stand empty-handed, bewildered, and perplexed, and cannot even get it into our heads that no myth will come to our aid althouqh we have such urgent need of one. As the result of the political situation, and the frightful, not to say diabolic triumphs of science, we are shaken by secret shudders and dark forebodings; but we know no way out, and very few persons indeed draw the conclusion that this time the issue is the long-since-forgotten soul of Man" (Jung 1963 364-5).
"A further development of myth might well begin with the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the apostles, by which they were made into sons of God , and not only they, but all others who through them and after them received the filiatio - sonship of God - and thus partook of the certainty that they were more than autochthonous animalia sprung from the earth, that as the twice -born they had their roots in the divinity itself. Their visible, physical life was on this earth; bui the invisible inner man had come from and would return to the primordial image of wholeness, to the eternal Father, as the Christian myth of salvation puts it. just as the Creator is whole, so His creature, His son, ought to be whole. Nothing can take away from the concept of divine wholeness" (Jung 1963 365).
"But unbeknownst to all, a splitting of that wholeness ensued; there emerged a realm of light and a realm of darkness. This outcome, even before Christ appeared, was clearly prefigured, as we may observe inter alia in the experience of Job, or in the widely disseminated Book of Enoch, which belongs to immediate pre-Christian times. In Christianity, too, this metaphysical split was plainly perpetuated: Satan, who in the Old Testament still belonged to the intimate entourage of Yahweh, now formed the diametrical and eternal opposite of the divine world. He could not be uprooted. It is therefore not surprising that as early as the beginning of the eleventh century the belief arose that the devil, not God, had created the world. Thus the keynote was struck for the second half of the Christian aeon, after the myth of the fall of the angels had already explained that these fallen angels had taught men a dangerous knowledge of science and the arts" (Jung 1963 365).
"Wherever the psyche does announce absolute truths - such as, for example, "God is motion," or " God is One "-it necessarily falls into one or the other of its own antitheses. For the two statements might equally well be: "God is rest," or "God is All." Through onesidedness the psyche disintegrates and loses its capacity for cognition. It becomes an unreflective (because unreflectable) succession of psychic states, each of which fancies itself its own justification because it does not, or does not yet, see any other state. In saying this we are not expressing a value judgment, but only pointing out that the limit is very frequently over-stepped. Indeed, this is inevitable, for, as Heraclitus says, "Everything is flux." Thesis is followed by antithesis, and between the two is generated a third factor, a lysis which was not perceptible before. In this the psyche once again merely demonstrates its antithetical nature and at no point has really got outside itself. In my effort to depict the limitations of the psyche I do not mean to imply that only the psyche exists. It is merely that, so far as perception and cognition are concerned, we cannot see beyond the psyche. Science is tacitly convinced that a non-psychic, transcendental object exists. But science also knows how difficult it is to grasp the real nature of the object, especially when the organ of perception fails or is lacking, and when the appropriate modes of thought do not exist or have still to be created. In cases where neither our sense organs nor their artificial aids can attest the presence of a real object, the difficulties mount enormously, so that one feels tempted to assert that there is simply no real object present. I have never drawn this overhasty conclusion, for I have never been inclined to think that our senses were capable of perceiving all forms of being." (Jung 1963 384)
On Life After Death
"A man should be able to say he has done his best to form a conception of life after death, or to create some of it - even if he must confess his failure. Not to have done so is a vital loss. For the question that is posed to him is the age-old heritage of humanity: an archetype rich in secret life, which seeks to add itself to our own individual life in order to make it whole. Reason sets the boundaries far too narrowly for us, and would have us accept only the known - and that too with limitations - and live in a known framework, just as if we were sure how far life actually extends. As a matter of fact, day after day we live far beyond the bounds of our consciousness; without our knowledge, the life of the unconscious is also going on within us. The more the critical reason dominates, the more impoverished life beomes; but the more of the unconscious the more of myth we are capable of making conscious, the more of life we integrate. Overvalued reason has this ..in common with political absolutism: under its dominion the individual is pauperised. The unconscious helps by communicating things to us, or making figurative allusions. It has other ways, too, of informing us of things which by all logic we could not possibly know" (Jung 1963 330).