Creation (Louise Brierley 1995 Roger la Borde, London) "First-century people wrote with certain presuppositions that were then universally assumed to be true. ... This planet Earth was not thought of as a planet at all but as a flat space at the very center of the created order. A blue canopy called the sky was believed to separate the earth, the realm of the human, from heaven, the realm of the divine. ... God lived beyond that blue canopy, they assumed, watching over the earth, employing the stars as peepholes through which, even in the dark, divine eyes could see and judge human behavior" (Spong 1994 41)
Although the Biblical myth of cosmogenesis is still taken seriously by fundamentalists, no scientifically mature person believes it as literal fact. This literal interpretation of Biblical sayings is contrary to their original poetic inspirational intent. The Gnostic interpretation of the genesis myth is that it is a spiritual allegory rather than a history with a moral, a term Elaine Pagels calls allegorical exegis.
(a) Myth:The Biblical sabbatical creation myth of Genesis 1, despite being a recent entry into the Old Testament from the Priestly author of the 6th century BC, evokes with power and poetic beauty the creation as an evolutionary biocosmology in which first the heavenly bodies, then the earth's geography, then the plants and animals and finally man emerge from the creation process in time, in a way quite different from the odd eschatological creation of man fully-fledged in the image of God in the more spatial Genesis-2 account of Eden . By comparison with other ideas of its time, it stands as one of the most succinct, innovative and beautiful accounts of cosmic creation produced by the visionary mind. The separation is in complements of void and form, light and darkness, heaven and earth just as wave and particle are complementary in quantum-mechanics.
In the beginning God created the heaven and the
And the earth was without form and void;
and darkness was on the face of the deep.
Or, if you prefer the slightly different translation noted by Karen Armstrong (1996 14):
At the beginning of God's creation of heaven and
the earth was tohu vo-vohu;
and darkness was on the face of the deep.
These are in a sense as different as the inflation scenario, we shall examine shortly is from the conventional big bang or, by another step, the continuous creation theory of the universe. Did God create de-novo out of the vacuum or make order out of its natural complement, pre-existing chaos?
And the spirit of God moved on the face of the
And God said let there be light and there was light.
And God saw the light, that it was good:
and God divided the light from the darkness.
And God called the light day and the darkness night.
And the evening and the morning were the first day.
And God said let there be a firmament in the midst
of the waters
and let it divide the waters from the waters...
And God called the firmament heaven.
And the evening and the morning were the second day.
There are a few things out of kilter here. For some reason the plants get created, not only before the animals, but also before the sun, moon and stars; but nevertheless the general effect is very beautiful and quite cosmic:
And God said let the waters under the heaven
be gathered together in one place,
and let the dry land appear and it was so...
And God called the dry land Earth ...
And God said let the earth bring forth grass,
the herb yielding seed,
and the fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind,
whose seed is in itself upon the earth ...
And the evening and the morning were the third day.
Genesis day 1 and day 3: A peculiar feature of the Genesis account is that the earth and even
the plants are created before the sun and moon and stars. This is easy to understand in terms of
the flat-earth cosmology portrayed in the first figure (Time 4 Nov 96).
And God said let there be lights in the firmament
and God made two great lights
the greater light to rule the day
and the lesser to rule the night
he made the stars also...
And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.
And God said Let the waters bring forth abundantly
the moving creature that hath life,
and the fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven...
saying be fruitful and multiply.
And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.
And God said let the earth bring forth every living
creature after his kind,
cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth ...
And God said let us make man in our image, after our likeness
and let them have dominion over the fowl of the air and the fish of the sea
and over all the earth and every creeping thing that creepeth on the earth...
male and female he created he them.
Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it...
And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
And on the seventh day God ended his work
... and he rested.
But there went up a mist from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground.
This magical number seven of the days of creation, is the sabbath signature of the Moon Deity.
The scientific view of creation runs this same course, but in an even more exciting way, with implications that are only beginning to be understood. I will try to give a brief account of a very deep subject in simple terms. You must accept that this description is going to be endlessly refined, and may even be radically transformed by future scientific discoveries.
Sabbatical Creation in a Nutshell
In the first epoch, the
Universe emerged out of the Self,
as the Tao in a quantum fluctuation.
In the second epoch, the
symmetric universe inflated
towards the infinite,
primal symmetry-breaking occurred between the natural forces
and the inflationary phase spontaneously collapsed in a shower of hot particles.
Suddenly gravitational potential and kinetic energy added into an enormity.
In the third epoch galaxies, stars and then planets formed - the primal biosphere.
In the fourth epoch, sentient
evolved out of molecular complexity,
through the fractal non-linear interactions of the asymmetric natural forces.
In the fifth epoch, Earth
brought forth by evolution
the herb yielding seed, the fungi, and every living creature
that moveth on the land, in the air or in the waters.
In the sixth epoch, Homo sapiens evolved,
culture was born, Eve
and the race of Adam fell into patriarchal civilization.
On the sabbath the Lord rested and
the Lady revealed
the immortal garment of life.
just as the human impact became a genocidal condition.
The Sabbatical Logos of Existential Quantum Cosmology
1. Biological life is the structural consummation of the interactive phase of cosmic symmetry-breaking of the fundamental forces of nature. It is thus a fully cosmological process. The fractal emergence of supra-molecular biological organelles and tissues out of physics and chemistry is a consequence of the non-linear nature of the fundamental forces.
2. An increasing entropy universe is essential to the existence of life as an island of negentropy. The open non-equilibrium system realizing this is exemplified both in the cell membrane and the photosynthetic solar-planetary interface.
3. The ultimate source of chance and uncertainty is quantum non-locality spanning space-time in a transactional hand-shaking relationship between past and future.
4. The subjective aspect of reality expressed in human consciousness is a manifestation of complementarity fundamental to the cosmic condition, which utilizes quantum non-locality to anticipate future uncertainties. Consciousness is manifest through cosmological processes co-eval with the origin of the physical universe and is thus not a biological accident.
5. Although evolution proceeds through mutation and natural selection and thus has no deterministic scheme of progress, the evolution of the human brain realizes a universal algorithmic solution, generalizing sense perception and cognition to the quantum limit, thus consummating the physical foundation of subjective consciousness in cosmological terms.
6. Historicity and synchronicity are manifestations of uniqueness in quantum non-locality which defy the correspondence principle in resolving one unique thread out of an infinity of probability universes. Evolution likewise is an application of chance and uncertainty which never fully conforms to the correspondence principle in its adventitious aspects.
7. Sexuality and gender are not just products of biology but an elaboration of wave-particle complementarity and symmetry-breaking into the biological realm. In the symmetry-breaking of sexuality into gender, the female retains a central role in cytoplasmic inheritance and the principal investment in the immortal continuity of the generations.
El: Smoot's Picture of the "Face of God" (Scientific American Feb 92)
The Imprint of Genesis in the Cosmic Background Radiation
During the planck era, when the universe is contained inside its own wave function
it is subject to quantum fluctuations which are postulated to have been inflated to cosmic proportions
to form the slight variations in the cosmic background seen in this picture.
For the Current Research please go to:
Space-time and the universe are one manifold, which is also a lattice of interactions. The duality of wave and particle results in quantum uncertainty, because energy, being the same as frequency, can only sampled over an extended time. Within the bubble of of uncertainty, anything possible can happen and everything does, even in the vacuum.
Cosmic inflation: The universe began in a quantum fluctuation, a fluctuation of the everything that is hidden inside the wild bubble of uncertainty. A germ fluctuation took the universe into a positive energy state and thus polarized time. However this positive energy, symmetrical state was below the unification temperature where the four forces of nature, gravity, electromagnetism, the radioactive (weak) and nuclear (colour) forces achieve their unity. There were no particles and hence no matter and no radiation as such. Because this universe was like a 'supercooled liquid', the symmetrical state was at a higher energy than the asymmetric state of the forces we see today. Consequently there was a tremendous negative energy field holding it in place. This field was like anti-gravity and caused the universe to inflate at enormous and exponentiating speed, not limited by the speed of light, as it was empty space unfolding its own curvature. In less time than you can imagine, the universe expanded to something comparable to its size today.
Suddenly, the system underwent symmetry-breaking and turned into something like a magnetic solid instead of a liquid, releasing all the latent heat of fusion as a shower of hot particles - the fireball of the big bang. Gravity now changed to attractive, because the negative-energy force field collapsed. So we suddenly had a universe rushing apart at nearly the speed of light, with heaps of kinetic energy that just balances the gravitational potential energy. This reversal of sign of gravity has caused cancelling energies to now add. A fluctuation of nothing at all has become a universe so massive we can hardly imagine its size. In fact it borders on the parabolic infinite.
Faint distant galaxies appear gravitationally lensed by nearer bright galaxies at centre. Predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity, gravitational lenses are collections of matter (such as clusters of galaxies) so massive they warp space in their vicinity, allowing the light of even more-distant objects to curve around the central lens-mass (Hubble Public Gallery).
Evolution of the Universe
There are many views current on this cosmic creation process. In some, the universe expands forever, in others it will collapse again. In some, there is a single creation focus. In others it is a fractal inflation, which continues, leaving behind non-inflating regions like ours. In one, such as Lee Smolin's the universe is even able to give birth to a new cosmos with new laws of nature by a process akin to natural selection. There is also debate about whether the laws of nature are entirely determined by rules of symmetry and uniqueness, possibly in a compactified higher-dimensional space, or whether our universe is selected from among many possibilities by the very fact that to experience it we as conscious molecular biological observers place strong conditions on possible laws of nature that any universe which did not possess such laws would be void of observers and hence eliminated from experience. This somewhat controversial principle is salled the Anthropic cosmological principle.
As the expanding universe cools, the hot plasma reaches the point where atomic structures can form and at this point, light decouples from matter. The hot radiation from this event has become vastly stretched and red-shifted to become the cosmic background radiation we see today. The picture you see above illustrates the fluctuations in the cosmic background, bearing the mark of inflationary smoothing, and indicating the pre-inflationary state.
From there, the galaxies formed in a fractal manner, presumably attracted by additional dark matter, which is believed on evidence such as the rotation rates of galaxies to be up to ninety percent of the whole. In the galaxies, we get a first generation of hot young stars which in ten million years or so die in a supernova to spew into the surrounding gas a rich mix of all the chemical elements of life. In a second-round generation, smaller slow-burning sun-like stars sweep up these mixed gasses into their planetary systems and settle in for a lifetime which is similar in duration to the age of the universe itself. The star - planetary systems now form the hieros-gamos of the universe, the star providing nutrient input radiation to its planets, while protecting them from the destructive energies of the nuclear source. The fertilization of molecular life by radiant energy begins.
Left: 3.5 billion year old cyanobacterial cells (Scientific American Feb 91) Centre: (a) Symmetry-breaking of the four forces, (b) Enzyme illustrates global non-linearity of chemical. bonding in which strong covalent and ionic bonds are succeeded by residual effects of weak bonds such as the hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions giving rise to structures such as the alpha helix and ultimately the global cooperativity of enzyme action (Watson et. al.). (c) The core life-forming bifurcation of the elements viewed as a symmertry-breaking, (d) The ATP molecule as generic structure derived from HCHO and HCN. Right: Microcells made from HCN and HCHO. (all images King except as stated))
Much work has been done on the molecular origins of life and much work remains to be done, but the principles are becoming clear. Although life is a weak and fragile phenomenon occuring on the thin biospheric skin of a planet, it is nevertheless a cosmological culmination of the symmetry-breaking differentiation of the fundamental forces. The four fundamental forces interact in order of their strength to form a set of hierarchical structures. The weak and colour forces interact first to assemble quarks into the proton and neutron. These then have a seconday interaction to form the nuclei. Finally electromagnetism fills in the orbital electrons and gravity of course acts as the cosmic backdrop, keeping us all on earth and ensuring the sun and solar system remain 'stable'.
The laws of chemistry are non-linear (charge interaction is quadratic) and this results in the very existence of the chemical bond. However, it also has manifold graduated secondary effects in the spectrum of bonding types, from strong covalent, ionic through H-bonding, hydrophobic interactions down to weak Van der Waal's associations. These result in fractal hierarchies of interaction in molecular structures from the local effects of atoms to the global action of enzymes and supra-molecular complexes. The entire periodic table is in fact a quantum Mandelbrot set which is not periodic because the properties do not precisely recur, and gives rise to non-linear feedbacks in the reaction dynamics of the polymerizations from simple molecules to the more complex organic molecules of life.
This provides for a rich diversity of molecular form in which certain generic structures emerge from the non-linear interaction to form the foundation of the informational and catalytic aspects of biochemistry. These generic structures form the key components of living systems today, the nucleotide bases and sugars, amino-acids and a variety of nucleotide coenzymes, such as ATP - the monomeric unit of RNA.
Centering on the structure of RNA and the extraordinary quantum properties of water, a replicative process emerges from phosphate dehydration, which spins an ever-wider web of a biochemical genetic algorithm - the game of life.
The Mandala of Evolution Dion Wright (detail Arguelles).
The Evolution of Life
A discussion of the issues surrounding evolution and creation, ultra-Darwinism and punctuated equilibrium, chaos and selection.
From there on out, the tree of life, the evolutionary tree, emerges in all its beauty and diversity. Although this is governed by rules of selection, mutation and eventually sexual recombination, it also shows the stamp of a variety of generic bifurcations such as that resulting in three archetypal higher kingdoms, plants, animals and fungi. It is in this tree of life that we find, not just our immortality, but also our becoming.
Cosmological biogenesis and evolution: In the evolution of higher organisms and particularly Homo sapiens there may be deep optimizations occurring through the very genetic algorithms which evolution represents. A case is made that the evolution of the human brain involves such a degree of generalization of function and quantum-mechanical sensitivity that it may constitute a type of cosmological solution to the final complexity interaction which the four fundamental forces are capable of under interaction - that is the evolution of the sentient conscious brain considering subjectively the very cosmology that spawned it.
Evolutionary evolution: Another key concept in evolution is to what extent evolution adapts to take advantage of nutational change. The wide variety of transposable elements, selfish genes, and cryptic viruses which travel down the germ line in widespread organisms suggests that transposition may play a significant role in higher organism evolution.
Our living germ-line runs in an unbroken web for 3500 million years all the way back to the earliest life forms on earth and in this sense we should all pay heed and true reverence and respect to our continuing immortality and cherish and guard its continued unfolding. This requires an acceptance of the sociobiological realities of gender and its impact on human culture and religious tradition.
Of course, in biological terms, it is both a truth and a falsehood that sex was the origin of death. However inevitably by degrees, with the optimization of the organism for complexity, a trade-off has resulted in the death of the organism and the loss of parthenogenic capacity in all but the simpler multi-celled animals. However it is not right to blame sex itself for this, because the truth is rather the reverse, it is through the vastly increased opportunities of novel recombination that sex has enabled the complexity of the organism to develop, so while we experience a limited lifespan, we owe our very existence as sentient humans primarily, over all other factors, to sexuality itself. The origin of sex and death.
It is also likely that the complementation of gender plays a key role in evolution of humanity, with its prolonged life cycle. I have speculated previously that the human ovum may be subject to selective transpositional evolution during childhood and adolescence. The recent hypothesis that key genes in intelligence are X-linked in a manner which gives males a unique non-transmissable X-identity, but females a mosaic transmissable identity is an exciting discovery. Since the X is also somatic haploid it forms a unique evolutionary testing ground.
Brain pet scan during hallucinations (Jones)
Far from being the most fragile and improbable of physical systems, the conscious brain may manifest the most fundamental aspects of quantum reality, doing so using the interdependence of order and chaos in its fractal dynamics. Furthermore these aspects arise from the re-interaction of the four wave-particle forces which originally emerged through cosmological symmetry-breaking, to form their ultimate non-linear interactive structures - the large supra-molecular complexes of cell-biology. It may be that only in such structures can the cooperative effects of quantum non-locality be fully realized, making us, despite our long and tortuous evolutionary history, literally a manifestation of quantum cosmology.